Periodontics is the branch of dentistry that deals with diseases of the gums and the bone that holds the teeth.
Periodontics is the part of dentistry that is responsible for detecting and treating pathologies that affect the periodontium. Periodontal diseases are a group of clinical pictures, of an infectious nature, located in the periodontium. This is formed by the tissues that protect, surround and support the teeth: gum, alveolar bone, alveolar ligament and root cement.
The accumulation of bacteria in the gum produces a gingival inflammatory reaction called gingivitis. Gingivitis is characterized by being a reversible entity but if it is not treated by eliminating the bacteria, it may be that this pathology is transformed into Periodontitis. Periodontitis is basically differentiated from gingivitis due to the presence of bone loss. The origin of this loss can be due to an increase in the virulence of the bacteria, due to a decrease in the host’s defenses, among other reasons. Thus, periodontitis are infections produced by bacteria and modified by factors linked to the host and the environment.
The main cause of inflammation is bacterial plaque, along with other predisposing factors, such as calculus, defective restorations, complications from orthodontic treatments, tobacco use and others.
Plaque control is the removal of the plaque and the prevention of its accumulation on adjacent teeth and gingival surfaces. Although the role of the professional is necessary for periodontal treatment, the skill and motivation of the patient when controlling plaque are essential if good long-term results are to be achieved. It is convenient to teach the patient a proper method of brushing, as well as complementary systems that strengthen oral hygiene. The task of the periodontist is the removal of plaque and supra and subgingival calculus.
Periodontal surgery aims to correct the defects that the disease has produced in the anatomical structures of the gum and bone. The objective is to establish a correct gingival morphology that facilitates the control of the plaque by the patient.
After the treatment of the gums, the patient begins periodic maintenance, since periodontal diseases are chronic in nature. Without adequate maintenance, we must wait for the recurrence of periodontal disease. The frequency of maintenance is determined by the degree of prior periodontal destruction, the risk factors, the patient’s oral hygiene and their age.